This glossary contains key terms from the whole text book. 

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Schengen Agreement

A treaty signed in June 1985 that abolished border controls between many European countries within the so-called Schengen area.


The assumption that immigrants and ethnic minorities prefer to live in communities where they are surrounded by their kin as opposed to intermixing with the rest of the population.


Any group of dwellings ranging from a single home to larger communities and neighbourhoods.


The illegal practice of settling in / occupying vacant spaces.

Staircase Model

Housing model, in particular applied throughout the Nordic countries and based on a gradual approach, in which homeless service users demonstrate their ability to move from one level of accommodation to another, either as part of the rehabilitation process or by acting in accordance with the targets that have been jointly laid down. The end goal is independent living.

State-led gentrification

A form of gentrification in which state actors use gentrification as a policy tool to create more expensive housing in (low-income) neighbourhoods.

Subsidiary protection

Can be granted to a third-country national or a stateless person who does not qualify for refugee status but is believed to face a real risk of danger if returned.